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  1. Carbon Bike Wheels Testing to Find the Fastest Ones (Reproduce from Hambini)

    Precursor – The critics and those with a vested interest

    I have added this section to the start of this blog post. The method this test uses is called transient state and it is used when aerodynamics are constantly changing. This is difficult to explain in detail in one blog post so I have linked to a youtube video (If you can`t open video below, please refer to link ).

    The important part of the video is at 10m20 and this shows the difference between airflow that exists in the real world, airflow that manufacturers test at and a (turbulent) transient test. The flow that is generated in a steady state wind tunnel rarely occurs in real life and is borderline acceptable for a velodrome.

    Be aware that a lot of wheel companies use internet forum users as a method of subversively selling a reality that does not exist under a premise of an impossible power saving. I DO NOT SELL WHEELS SO I HAVE NO VESTED INTERESTS and remain impartial.

    In short, the wheel companies are exaggerating their power savings and testing using methods THAT ARE INAPPROPRIATE FOR ROAD USE. If they tell you otherwise, they are categorically lieing and I would be more than happy to prove that in a court of law.


    In terms of drag caused by a bicycle rider, the biggest loss is caused by the rider themselves followed by the wheels and frame.

    The drag caused by wheels is significant because of two fundamental reasons. The first is they hit the air first as they are the most forward part of the bike and second because they are rotating. The effective air speed at the top of a wheel/tyre is double the indicated speed of the bike.

    In the bike industry, wheel aerodynamic testing has generally been conducted by two groups of people – Wheel manufacturers and journalists. Wheel manufacturers will usually adjust tests to make their particular wheels look more favourable than their competitors in testing. This is usually achieved by a combination of adjusting speeds and angles. The reality is this type of test is not impartial.

    Journalists on the other hand tend to visit their local university and ask some clever boffin to conduct their testing for them and give them the results or go to their local velodrome, hold a speed and see how much power the wheels consume.

    Both of the above testing methodologies are not representative of the real world. A comparative analogy would be fuel consumption for a car driving along a perfectly smooth glass like road surface with no wind and no change in speed – it is totally unrealistic.

    The testing that has been carried out is usually steady state. A steady state analysis assumes the wheels, bike and rider are in a nice environment where air is hitting them at a perfect speed and perfect angle. The drag is then recorded.

    In the real world, very few riders have the ability to maintain a speed of 50km/h for a length of time as they are simply not fit enough. The reality is on the open road, wind does not come in from a perfect angle, it’s speed changes and things like street furniture (hedges, kerbs, passing cars, rider rocking from left to right) upset the airflow over the rider. Modelling this type of situation is called transient analysis. It is technically more difficult to carry out transient analysis both in CFD and in a wind tunnel. Most wind tunnels are not geared up to carry out transient analysis.

    Wheel manufacturers are now using a weighted analysis of yaw angles and speeds to give an overall rating for their wheels. Bare in mind they can adjust their weighting to make their wheels look better!

    A superior method of analysis is to carry out a transient analysis in a wind tunnel. This requires a wind tunnel with Horizontal and Vertical Louvres to add Swirl to the air before it hits the bike and rider. This allows a much more realistic estimate of drag to be estimated as it simulates road conditions.

    General Guidance

    Yaw Angles
    Wheel manufacturers tout their wheels as having fantastic drag at varying yaw angles. The effectiveness of their marketing is remarkable as many posters on the Internet also believe this.

    Due to the laws of physics, for an average rider, the maximum yaw angle before complete separation occurs is around 12 degrees. A more blunt (toroidal) cross section might get to 15 but that’s really the limit. This limit of separation is affected by a variable known as Reynolds number (A combination of Speed, density, profile of the shape and viscosity)

    Aerodynamic design is always a compromise, increasing the separation point at high yaw angles will always negatively impact drag at very low (<5 degree) yaw angles.

    In repeated testing, wheels with very good transient performance work best for the average rider.

    This guidance is uniform across the board. It is vitally important to install tyres that are slightly narrower or inline with the brake track of the wheel rim. A ballooning tyre will impact the drag significantly.

    There has been a trend towards wider tyres on bikes of late. From an aerodynamic perspective, the width of the rear tyre has little effect but the width of the front tyre has much more impact and therefore a 23mm front tyre is recommended irrespective of whether the wheel was designed for 25mm tyres. At speeds above 30km/h, it is more beneficial to have 23mm tyres than 25mm front tyres for aerodynamic benefit.

    Testing Protocol

    The test protocol is the product of “weekend work” by a group of Aerospace Engineers from Bristol, England. The testing protocol is very different to manufacturer tests. It is fundamentally impartial and mimics real world riding conditions in the sense it models transient air movement. Emphasis is placed on wheels which handle the separation and reattachment of airflow efficiently, very little emphasis is placed on riding a bike straight into a head wind at zero degree yaw – this is not realistic so why bother testing it. The wind tunnel used was temperature and humidity controlled.

    The graph below shows a sample of one ride where a rider was riding along a straight road at an almost constant speed. It is clear that neither air speed or yaw angle were constant.

    The real world basis for this protocol are based on two subsets of bike riders in the Bristol (UK) area. Riders who are good club riders averaging 30km/h and time triallists averaging 50km/h. Data from their rides in terms of effective yaw angles, speed and air pressure distribution was recorded over 6 months. This was assessed, aggregated and mapped to a protocol suitable for a wind tunnel. The method of transformation was to statistically analyze the road conditions, apply a Fast Fourier Transformation to the data and run some test simulations for validation. The two discreet protocols are shown below.

    THE GRAPHS DO NOT REPRESENT A RIDE CYCLE, THEY INDICATE THE PARAMETERS THE WHEELS WERE TESTED TO. Wind tunnels have limitations and part of the data gathering exercise is to validate data as it’s being processed. It is expensive and time consuming to rectify errors later. To replicate transient conditions, pulsing velocity or pulsing angle are both acceptable. The ramp tests were used to validate one against the other for each wheelset.

    test 2

    test 3

    Through investigation it was found that micro corrections from the riders and the somewhat random nature of wind speed and deviation in yaw angle produced transient response of the bike and rider combination. This was much worse on the wheels as they were rotating into an oncoming airstream. In effect, a rider riding in a perfectly straight line into an oncoming wind was generating turbulence/buffeting/flutter by the bike rocking from side to side. What would be considered a zero degree yaw angle in steady state analysis behaves more like 5-6 degrees when the transient effects are factored in.

    This protocol mimics the buffeting nature of the rider in the airstream configuration and produces an overall average drag value against time and consequently average power. It is designed to weed out the wheels that have poor transient performance. The lines on the protocols are shown for completeness, they do not mean this protocol favours blustery conditions.

    Transient vs Steady State drag

    The concept of transient drag effects have been well noted in low speed Aerospace applications such as military reconnaissance drones. This transient concept has not been applied to bicycle related products despite the overwhelming sensitivity of the velocity vectors involved. As an example the crosswind velocity on a bike often exceeds the forward velocity (Ratio > 1). A comparison for a car would yield a forward to crosswind ratio of 0.25 at 100km/h typical cruising speed.

    A significant hurdle with trying to accurately measure the drag of a bicycle and rider is the discontinuation of the body. There are large areas with no solid body (eg wheel rim to hub, frame tube triangles, clearances between tyres and frames). This leads to inevitable separation of the freestream from the body surface and results in aerodynamic buffeting or aeroelastic effects (flutter). This causes the flow to take a long time to settle out and inevitably in that time, another variable has changed and the process repeats.

    To illustrate the impact of transient drag, the graph below shows the yaw angle which is incremented in step inputs by 2 degrees every 10 seconds (data labels shown). This is plotted against drag force in steady state and in transient states.

    The steady state line shows the drag performance of the wheelset when readings are allowed to settle and then noted.

    The transient lines are more representative of real life. In the case of this data acquisition, a datum yaw angle was established and 2.5 deg/s of movement was overlapped. As the oscillation was introduced, there was an immediate increase in drag on both sets of wheels. At 4 degrees of yaw, there was a noticeable difference between the Reynolds and FLO wheels. The Reynolds wheels were able to deal with the instability and buffeting much better than the FLO wheels. Beyond 12 degrees, neither wheel was able to effectively contain the buffeting and full separation occurs.

    In almost every case, the drag in the real world is much more than in a steady state scenario. It is particularly prevalent on the wheels because they are rotating and the net velocity at the top of the wheels are double the forward velocity.


    Time spent at varying Yaw Angles

    Whilst the primary aim of this study was to establish a wind tunnel protocol to depict road analysis. Some of the data gathered could be used for generic calculations.

    The instrumentation used for the road analysis had a sampling rate of 1024 times per second. Combining this level of accuracy with standard filtering protocols, it was possible to ascertain the effective yaw angle of the bike and rider. By reducing the resolution, the data was converted into a format that aligns with wheel manufacturer marketing departments for yaw angle vs time at that angle. In doing so, it reduced the accuracy of the results but has been shown for comparison purposes.

    It should be noted that the transient data was a better reflection of actual time at an angle as it took into account the micro corrections for rider input steering and the instantaneous corrections for wind speed. Filtering for steady state by reducing the sample rate removed the instability. In summary the drag response against rate of change of yaw angle is a better predictor of response in a free stream at angles below the separation point of the section.

    When considering an entire bike and rider combination, the effect of the wheels are comparatively small compared to the drag caused by the rider so the transient nature of the wheel drag becomes diminished. The rider drag is by far the dominant part of the system. The effects of transient response diminish as the ratio of forward to swirl (crosswind) velocity becomes greater. Thus the faster the rider goes, the less effect the transient behaviour becomes.



    The effect of Tyre width on Aerodynamic performance

    There has been a general trend towards wider tyres in the bicycle industry over recent years. This has been largely pushed by tyre and wheel manufacturers heading towards tubeless designs on the premise that a wider tyre has lower rolling resistance. Whilst the effects of rolling resistance and a more favourable contact patch have been well documented, the effect on aerodynamic drag has been disputed. Some wheel manufacturers have claimed their wheels were more aerodynamic with wider tyres – for this claim to be valid the wheels would have required a lower combined drag coefficient to overcome the increase in frontal area.

    The graphs below show the comparison between two wheels, a narrow bodied Shimano C60 and a wider bodied Enve 7.8. It was clearly evident that a ballooned tyre (25mm on a Shimano C60 rim) had a significant impact on drag, especially at higher speeds. In contrast the effect on the wider bodied Enve wheel was much less dramatic. In both cases a narrow tyre reduced the drag. The continental tyres tended to measure slightly wider than their stated width when mounted.



    Interpretation of the data

    This data should be interpreted like those of fuel consumption figures for a car. They are designed to give a typical indication of how much power is absorbed over an ENTIRE ride loop at a given speed. It is important to note that wheels that are fast at 50km/h aren’t necessarily the fastest at 30km/h.

    • The MAXIMUM EXPERIMENTAL ERROR has been calculated at +/- 2.5%, the middle of the range is plotted for each of the values to maintain consistency
    • The rim depths are split into classes to make it easier for comparison, they may not agree with the stated size from the supplier.
    • The Power rating in a transient analysis is much worse than a steady state analysis
    • Comments are indicated for anything noteworthy
    • The rider position was within +/-10mm for each run, this was backed up with a reverse mounted pressure rake to remove any spurious data. There have been comments suggesting a rider could not keep a fixed position for the entire cycle duration – the protocol does not require them to, error checking is built in. Although unusual for the cycling industry, removal of appendage drag is commonplace in the Aerospace industry so the same technique was applied
    • Control Tyre was a pair of Continental GP4000SII 23mm with a pressure of 8.25BarG, there are a couple of wheel and tyre combinations that are highlighted in yellow showing a variation from the control tyre, these have been included for reference
    • The ROTATIONAL Drag required to spin the wheel up is included (Most manufacturers do not include this figure which is around 25 to 30 percent, a notable exception is Swiss Side)
    • The riding position (relaxed hoods) remained unchanged irrespective of speed. In reality high speeds would necessitate a different riding position but doing so would have invalidated the test.



    Who tests in Transient Conditions?

    To date, the only company that has confirmed they test for and include turbulence (transient conditions) when designing is SwissSide. Jean-Paul Ballade of SwissSide commented on the Youtube video shown above.

    Although unconfirmed, there are certain features on Mavic wheels which suggest they either design for or test in Turbulent conditions.


    Riders have long been fed a diet of wheels being tested at 50km/h, this speed is inappropriate for the vast majority of riders as they cannot maintain the power required for that velocity. There has been a general thought process that most riding happens at yaw angles of less than 10 degrees. Whilst this may be a valid statement if you are doing 50km/h, at more modest speeds this does not occur. In both 50km/h and 30km/h riding, the effect of micro corrections to the steering, turbulence from the wind itself and external objects causes unsteady turbulent flow over the wheels. This phenomena causes the effective yaw angle experienced by the wheels to increase.

    • Wheels that performed well were noticeably resistant to generating areas of turbulence
    • Wheels that performed well mitigated generated turbulence quite well
    • Wheels that performed well had a lower rotational drag compared to their competition
    • Wheels with a deeper rim section are generally more aerodynamic than shallow sections
    • The difference between wheels of a similar depth is very small and it would be difficult for a human to be able to detect this during riding
    • The difference between a low profile wheel and a deep wheel would be picked up by a human riding.
    • The FLO cycling and Hunt wheels performed badly, they appear to have been designed by individuals with a limited understanding of aerodynamics of rotating objects. As such they generated unnecessary separation and could not deal with the separated airflow
    • The Aerocoach disc and 75mm deep section front wheel showed quite interesting results. This wheel was essentially an aluminium wheel with a clip on fairing. At low to moderate speeds, the wheel performed reasonbly but as the speed was increased the wheel started to perform quite erraticaly. The front wheel construction is agriculturual and large gaps exist between the spokes and the non structural fairing. These gaps generated pressure disturbances and caused the flow to behave erratically. As the speed was increased, it’s performance became quite poor in comparison to the immediate competition and this was mainly due to the poor front wheel design. A picture of the problem is shown below12

    If you are considering using the data from this article to influence your purchasing decision then please use this with caution. Some aspects of wheels like their general build quality, braking performance, hubs and ease of maintenance are not measured. These factors should be taken into account accordingly.

    (Original post check from :

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  2. Yoeleo Time Trial /Triathlon Wheels on Fire

    Lao Max`s Bike with Yoeleo C60|Disc Wheelset

    Review: Look great with a clean and minimalist design. I have mounted a Victoria clincher, installation has been smooth and fast without special efforts. The tube valve is very easy to access and inflate even using a bulky pump and I can use a standard tube size. Once riding the wheel rolls smooth even  sprinting  , The first couple of test are showing a saving of about 5-8 watt  vs  a 88mm profile wheels .  Had no major complains even with strong lateral wind. If I have to pick an area of improvement would be the weight but at this price...


    Christopher`s Propel with Yoeleo SAT C60|88 PRO

    Review: Propel is ready to do battle, for Beer Tree Racing cycling team, in 2019. Took the Yoeleo wheels tubeless. Their design has no through holes on the tire side of the rim,

    so the Schwalbe Pro One tires seated and sealed on the first try, with no rim strips or tape of any kind. Just Stans sealant and air. Yoeleo. Very happy.


    Thomas racing with Yoeleo C88|88 PRO, super smooth DT Swiss 240S hubs and ultra-light Sapim CX-Ray spokes are a great match!


    Troy who is qualified for world championships racing with Yoeleo TT wheelset

    Review: A huge thank you to Yoeleo for all your support! Another PB bike split on these super quick wheels! Now we are off to the World Championships!


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  3. Are Chinese Carbon Wheels Reliable?

    To buy from China or not ?

    To go tubeless or not ?

    Is Yoeleo wheels reliable ?

    So many questions come to you when deciding on your wheels purchase. Now watch this video edited by Joe from "China Cycling" (who has purchased 3 sets of Yoeleo wheels and used them for 5-6 years), you will have all the answers for those questions.

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  4. YOELEO Wheels Unboxing

    This morning the JAM Team's "service course" (i.e. Mike's house) received a parcel - and not just any parcel - but a set of Yoeleo SAT C60/88 Pro Tubeless/Clincher wheels and 4 of Yoeleo's side loading carbon bottle cages.

    They are here in Perth to be ridden hard - and will be on Mike's TT bike and probably his road bike too.

     Mike's reaction is "I have unboxed quite a few really expensive wheel sets in my time, and these are by far the best protected wheels I have seen. They are shipped with spare spokes, aero quick releases, and brake pads as well as 'UCI approved' stickers if you wanted to put them on."

    "Side loading bottle cages are particularly perfect for small frames when a tall bottle just can't be mounted on the seat post in a normal cage."

    "The wheels themselves are very sexy looking, with no spoke holes in the wide rim bed to allow for mounting tubeless tyres without having to go through the rigmarole of special rim-tape. The rims are modern wide rim beds with the blunt trailing edge that you see on all the expensive wheel sets now. The hubs on this set are DT Swiss 350's which are their performance workhorse hubs. I can't wait to get them on the road to see how they perform".

    Many thanks to our team-mate Steve up in China for arranging this - and most especially to Leo Yoeleo for sending these babies down to Perth. More to come -

    but in the meantime here are some unboxing pictures:

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  5. Yoeleo Rewards Me for My Ride

    Reward 1: Free Cycling Cap

    Everyone has chance to get a free Yoeleo cycling cap by doing as follow:
    1. Submit the attendance form from our website:
    2. Join in Yoeleo Facebook Group:
    3. Share the total distance you`ve ridden in 2018 with Strava page link by comment under group announcement post during Jan 1st to Jan 14th,2019:

    After reviewing the info you submitted, we will contact you and confirm the give-away of cycling cap through Facebook.

    Reward 2: A Free Front SAT CA50 Wheel

    This reward is given to the person who gets most shares for this event post. He/she must do as follow:
    1. Submit the attendance form from our website:
    2. Share this event post from our Facebook page to your own timeline and try to make it gains as many more shares as possible.
    3. Join in Yoeleo Facebook Group:
    4. Show us the link of the event post that you shared by comment under group announcement post on Jan 14th 2019:

    We will review all the info and reveal the winner on Feb 1st,2019 in our Facebook group.

    Reward 3: Free SAT C50|50 PRO Wheelset

    This is the most exciting one! To win this reward, you need to do as follow:
    1. Submit the attendance form from our website:
    2. Join in Yoeleo Facebook Group:
    3. Join in our Strava group:
    4. Keep riding, and try to rank within the leaderboard from above Strava group during the week of Feb 18th –Feb 24th,2019

    We will review that week`s leaderboard and find the person whose weekly distance is mostly close to the top 100`s average distance to be the winner. The winner will be revealed on Feb 26th,2019 in our Facebook group.

    Yoeleo reserves all the right for the final explanation of this event.


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  6. Happy New Year 2019

    YOELEO wish you a wonderful new year filled with abundance, joy, and treasured moments. May 2019 be your best year yet!

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  7. 2018 Yoeleo Christmas Sales & Daily Deals

    As we usher in the new year with great celebrations and expectations, we take this moment to express our heartfelt gratitude to you.

    For all orders placed between Dec 1st and Dec 15th, we are offering a huge discount as 15% off for all of our products series.

    Besides, for orders with two or more wheelsets, we are offering an ultimate discount as 18% off. If you have friends looking for new rims or wheelsets, team up and enjoy the benefits that can not be missed!

    Furthermore, every day between Dec 1st till Dec 15th, there will be two sets of different wheels updated on our official website for special sale with discount up to 50% off! Register now and stay tuned, don't miss the real great deal you should enjoy.

    2018 Yoeleo Christmas Sale Coupon Code: CS15DEC which will automatically go into effect on 2018/12/01 00:00 (UTC).

    Feel free to contact us by e-mailing to or calling +86-592-5651740 if you got any questions about the products or the sale event.

    Merry Christmas and enjoy your ride with Yoeleo!

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  8. Improvements from Yoeleo

    Last week, Yoeleo has updated the official website with several changes including new series of products, a reward points system, international affiliate program and the group discount activity. So what are the main differences?


    New series of Yoeleo SAT wheels are launched with many improvement in design and production.

    1. Yoeleo SAT (Special Assembly Technology)
    Yoeleo SAT wheels are built with no spoke holes on tire bed, thus increase 30% of the wheel strength and 10% of inflation capacity, and saved wheels weight due to no rim tapes required.

    2. Braking Surface Technology
    We updated the braking surface with a higher TG resin plus 1K carbon fiber, which provide with better heat-dissipation and longer braking lifetime.

    3. Tubeless Technology (25mm & 27mm)
    The tubeless technology allows the wheels to be compatible with both clincher and tubeless tires, which has further advantages over conventional rims.

    4. Brand New Appearance
    Besides our previous series, we update the new series with a more modern and fashion UD Matt looking, with or without a black glossy decal, they look sharp and full of power.

    5. Prolonged Warranty
    For all purchase made after Oct 15th, 2018, Yoeleo offers a 3-year warranty for all the frame, fork, wheels and rims.
    You may check the updated Warranty and Return Policy here.

    6. Diversity Products Options
    Whether you are looking for a rim brake or a disc brake wheelset, no matter you are pursuing the lightest weight or a supreme performance, you can find your ideal wheels here in different depth or width with top-level hubs and spokes.


    By signing up and placing orders, you receive reward points for the purchase. The system will give out 10 points for each $100 you spent. Also, you will receive reward points by interacting with us and other members, also by sharing YOELEO brand and products.

    Action Reward Limit




    Sign up

    100 Points

    Sign up for the first time

    Sign in

    10 Points

    The first time per day

    Newsletter sign up

    20 Points

    The first time per account

    Write a Product review

    50 Points

    Each review (approved)

    Refer to Friend

    30 Points

    Each invite (different friends)

    Share to Facebook

    20 Points

    First 3 times per day

    Like on Facebook

    10 Points

    First 3 times per day

    Tweet on Twitter

    10 Points

    First 3 times per day

    Like on Google

    10 Points

    First 3 times per day

    Pinterest Pin

    10 Points

    First 3 times per day

    Accumulate your reward points and exchange for a discount. For every order you place, you may spend 600 points in exchange for a $10 discount.


    By signing up at you are welcomed to join the Yoeleo Affiliate program. It's totally free and super easy to become our affiliate partner. You will be provided with unique tracking link which you can spread it and earn commissions from orders generated from it.

    How it works

    1. Simply register at Yoeleo official site and you become our affiliate partner. You can check your affiliate link in your account information.

    2. Place your tracking links to our store on your website, blog, forum post, etc. Each link you place contains affiliate code so we can track every conversion.

    3. You earn 6%-15% commissions for every successful purchase made by your visitors. Commission rate increase as your revenue accumulate.

    Commission Tiers

    Your commission starts at 6%.
    When your revenue reaches $3000, commission rate will increase to 10%.
    When you reach $30000, commission rate will increase to 15%.


    Profit With No Rushing Around
    Just redirect your visitors and we do the rest without bothering you

    We Get You Equipped
    You will be supplied with a range of banners and text links to place wherever you like

    Constant Income
    Place the links/banners and money keeps on coming with no additional efforts


    To celebrate this update we are offering a discount for group purchase. Just invite 2 of your friends and submit the basic information, you can enjoy a 6% group discount together. Go for it now via this page: Group Discount


    1. YOELEO set up a new warehouse and service center in Germany aiming to provide better service to European customers.

    2. The official Europe website is is online for European customers to purchase with free custom duty/tariffs and handling fee.

    3. Ride 2 The Edge. Customers in Israel will be able to buy directly from our Israel dealer now.
    Call +97250-888-1996 for more information.

    4. New service center will be set up in Japan. Customers in Japan are welcome to purchase directly from the official Japanese website which will be on the line on Nov 15th, 2018.

    Go sign up now and join the party. If you have any questions, just contact us at and we will do all we can to support you.

    Enjoy the ride!

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  9. carbon wheels

    We offer carbon  wheels with 3 years warranty and all road carbon wheels UCI approved with YOELEO SAT technology.

    Best seller  50mm carbon wheels is on sale now.

    Checkout below link:

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